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A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi.
The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis. Having stones at any location in the urinary tract is referred to asurolithiasis, and the termureterolithiasis is used to refer to stones located in the ureters.
Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine.
Dehydration from reduced fluid intake or strenuous exercise without adequate fluid replacement increases the risk of kidney stones.
Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation
Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract; these are known as struvite or infection stones.
A number of different medical conditions can lead to an increased risk for developing kidney stones:
Gout Hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine),
Other conditions associated with an increased risk of kidney stones include hyperparathyroidism, kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis, and some inherited metabolic conditions, including cystinuriaand hyperoxaluria. Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) are also associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones.
People with inflammatory bowel disease or who have had an intestinal bypass or ostomy surgery are also more likely to develop kidney stones.
Some medications also raise the risk of kidney stones. These medications include some diuretics, calcium-containing antacids, and the protease inhibitor indinavir (Crixivan), a drug used to treat HIVinfection.
Dietary factors and practices may increase the risk of stone formation in susceptible individuals. In particular, inadequate fluid intake predisposes to dehydration, which is a major risk factor for stone formation..
Dietary factors that increase the risk of stone formation include low fluid intake, and high dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars, oxalate, grapefruit juice, apple juice, and cola drinks.
People who take supplemental calcium have a higher risk of developing kidney stones, Unlike supplemental calcium, high intakes of dietary calcium do not appear to cause kidney stones and may actually protect against their development.
Other electrolytes
Aside from calcium, other electrolytes appear to influence the formation of kidney stones. For example, by increasing urinary calcium excretion, high dietary sodium may increase the risk of stone formation. High dietary intake of magnesium also appears to reduce the risk of stone formation somewhat, because like citrate, magnesium is also an inhibitor of urinary crystal formation.
Animal protein
Diets in Western nations typically contain more animal protein than the body needs. Urinary excretion of excess sulfurous amino acids (e.g., cysteine and methionine), uric acid and other acidic metabolites from animal protein acidifies the urine, which promotes the formation of kidney stones.
alcohol can lead to systemic dehydration,
Pathophysiological causes
Supersaturation of urine
When the urine becomes supersaturated (when the urine solvent contains more solutes than it can hold in solution) with one or more calculogenic (crystal-forming) substances,
Inhibitors of stone formation
Normal urine contains chelating agents such as citrate that inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of calcium-containing crystals.
Kidney stones are typically classified by their location and their chemical composition.
Chemical composition
Calcium-containing stones
Struvite stones
Uric acid stones
Other types
Who is at risk for kidney stones?
Most urinary stones develop in people 20-49 years of age, and those who are prone to multiple attacks of kidney stones usually develop their first stones during the second or third decade of life.
In residents of industrialized countries, kidney stones are more common than stones in the bladder..
A family history of kidney stones is also a risk factor for developing kidney stones
Uric acid kidney stones are more common in people with chronically elevated uric acid levels in their blood.
A small number of pregnant women (about one out of every 1,500-3,000 pregnancies) develop kidney stones,
While some kidney stones may not produce symptoms (known as "silent" stones), people who have kidney stones often report the sudden onset of excruciating, cramping pain in their low back and/or side, groin, or abdomen. Changes in body position do not relieve this pain. The abdominal, groin, and/or back pain typically waxes and wanes in severity, characteristic of colicky pain (the pain is sometimes referred to as renal colic). It may be so severe that it is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Kidney stones also characteristically cause blood in the urine. If infection is present in the urinary tract along with the stones, there may be fever and chills. Sometimes, symptoms such as difficulty urinating, urinary urgency, penile pain, or testicular pain may occur due to kidney stones.
The diagnosis of kidney stones is suspected by the typical pattern of symptoms when other possible causes of the abdominal or flank pain are excluded. Imaging tests are usually done to confirm the diagnosis.
  • X ray KUB
  • CT scan
  • intravenous pyelogram
  • ultrasound examination may be done to help establish the diagnosis.
Laboratory investigations typically carried out include: microscopic examination of the urine, which may show red blood cells, bacteria, leukocytes, urinary casts and crystals
What is the treatment for kidney stones? How long does it take to pass a kidney stone?
There are no proven home remedies to dissolve kidney stones
Dietary managment
  • increasing fluid intake citrate-rich fluids (especially citrate-rich fluids such as lemonade and orange juice), with the objective of increasing urine output to more than 2 liters per day
  • Attempt to maintain a calcium intake of 1000 – 1200 mg per day
  • limiting sodium intake to less than 2300 mg per day
  • limiting vitamin C intake to less than 1000 mg per day (A positive association between animal protein consumption and recurrence of kidney stones has been shown in men, but not yet in women.
  • limiting animal protein intake to no more than 2 meals daily, with less than 6 – 8 ounces per day
  • limiting consumption of foods containing high amounts of oxalate (such as spinach, strawberries, nuts, rhubarb, wheat germ, dark chocolate, cocoa, brewed tea)
Urine alkalinization
The mainstay for medical management of uric acid stones is alkalinization (increasing the pH) of the urine.
One of the recognized medical therapies for prevention of stones is the thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics,
For people with hyperuricosuria and calcium stones, allopurinol is one of the few treatments that has been shown to reduce kidney stone recurrences.
Management Medical
Analgesia Management of pain
Expulsion therapy
The use of medications to speed the spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi is referred to as medical expulsive therapy.
For kidney stones that do not pass on their own, a procedure called lithotripsy is often used. In this procedure, shock waves are used to break up a large stone into smaller pieces that can then pass through the urinary system.
Surgical techniques have also been developed to remove kidney stones when other treatment methods are not effective. This may be done through a small incision in the skin (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) or through an instrument known as an ureteroscope passed through the urethra and bladder up into the ureter.
Kidney stone are successfully treated by our special Ayurvedic formulation. Our Ayurvedic formulation corrects the hormonal changes responsible for kidney stones as well as maintains the PH to dissolve kidney stones and prevent formation of new kidney stones. It increases the urinary flow and maintains hydration of kidney unlike other market product.
Usually stone dissolves in a month or more than that depends on their sizes ranging from 2 mm to 30 mm, site (in ureter, kidney and bladder) and stage of obstruction by stone (partial or complete obstruction in kidney, bladder of neck, or ureter).
How can kidney stones be prevented?
Rather than having to undergo treatment, it is best to avoid kidney stones in the first place when possible. It can be especially helpful to drink more water, since low fluid intake and dehydration are major risk factors for kidney stone formation.
Depending on the cause of the kidney stones and an individual's medical history, dietary changes or medications are sometimes recommended to decrease the likelihood of developing further kidney stones. If one has passed a stone, it can be particularly helpful to have it analyzed in a laboratory to determine the precise type of stone so specific prevention measures can be considered.
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